Bed-Sharing in the Absence of Hazardous Circumstances: Is There a Risk of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome? An Analysis from Two Case-Control Studies Conducted in the UK


Blair PS, Sidebotham P, Pease A, Fleming PJ (2014) Bed-Sharing in the Absence of Hazardous Circumstances: Is There a Risk of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome? An Analysis from Two Case-Control Studies Conducted in the UK. PLoS ONE 9(9): e107799. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0107799



The risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) among infants who co-sleep in the absence of hazardous circumstances is unclear and needs to be quantified.


Combined individual-analysis of two population-based case-control studies of SIDS infants and controls comparable for age and time of last sleep.


Parents of 400 SIDS infants and 1386 controls provided information from five English health regions between 1993–6 (population: 17.7 million) and one of these regions between 2003–6 (population:4.9 million).


Over a third of SIDS infants (36%) were found co-sleeping with an adult at the time of death compared to 15% of control infants after the reference sleep (multivariate OR = 3.9 [95% CI: 2.7–5.6]). The multivariable risk associated with co-sleeping on a sofa (OR = 18.3 [95% CI: 7.1–47.4]) or next to a parent who drank more than two units of alcohol (OR = 18.3 [95% CI: 7.7–43.5]) was very high and significant for infants of all ages. The risk associated with co-sleeping next to someone who smoked was significant for infants under 3 months old (OR = 8.9 [95% CI: 5.3–15.1]) but not for older infants (OR = 1.4 [95% CI: 0.7–2.8]). The multivariable risk associated with bed-sharing in the absence of these hazards was not significant overall (OR = 1.1 [95% CI: 0.6–2.0]), for infants less than 3 months old (OR = 1.6 [95% CI: 0.96–2.7]), and was in the direction of protection for older infants (OR = 0.1 [95% CI: 0.01–0.5]). Dummy use was associated with a lower risk of SIDS only among co-sleepers and prone sleeping was a higher risk only among infants sleeping alone.


These findings support a public health strategy that underlines specific hazardous co-sleeping environments parents should avoid. Sofa-sharing is not a safe alternative to bed-sharing and bed-sharing should be avoided if parents consume alcohol, smoke or take drugs or if the infant is pre-term.


A GRADE Working Group approach for rating the quality of treatment effect estimates from network meta-analysis.

Puhan MA, Schünemann HJ, Murad MH, Li T, Brignardello-Petersen R, Singh JA, Kessels AG, Guyatt GH; GRADE Working Group.
BMJ. 2014 Sep 24;349:g5630. doi: 10.1136/bmj.g5630.

Network meta-analysis (NMA), combining direct and indirect comparisons, is increasingly being used to examine the comparative effectiveness of medical interventions. Minimal guidance exists on how to rate the quality of evidence supporting treatment effect estimates obtained from NMA.

We present a four-step approach to rate the quality of evidence in each of the direct, indirect, and NMA estimates based on methods developed by the GRADE working group. Using an example of a published NMA, we show that the quality of evidence supporting NMA estimates varies from high to very low across comparisons, and that quality ratings given to a whole network are uninformative and likely to mislead.

Effect of Home Visiting by Nurses on Maternal and Child Mortality: Results of a 2-Decade Follow-up of a Randomized Clinical Trial.

Olds DL, Kitzman H, Knudtson MD, et al. Effect of Home Visiting by Nurses on Maternal and Child Mortality: Results of a 2-Decade Follow-up of a Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Pediatr. 2014 Sep 1;168(9):800-6. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2014.472. (Original) PMID: 25003802

IMPORTANCE: Mothers and children living in adverse contexts are at risk of premature death.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of prenatal and infant/toddler nurse home visiting on maternal and child mortality during a 2-decade period (1990-2011).
PARTICIPANTS: A randomized clinical trial was designed originally to assess the home visiting program`s effect on pregnancy outcomes and maternal and child health through child age 2 years. The study was conducted in a public system of obstetric and pediatric care in Memphis, Tennessee. Participants included primarily African American women and their first live-born children living in highly disadvantaged urban neighborhoods, who were assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups: treatment 1 (transportation for prenatal care [n = 166]), treatment 2 (transportation plus developmental screening for infants and toddlers [n = 514]), treatment 3 (transportation plus prenatal/postpartum home visiting [n = 230]), and treatment 4 (transportation, screening, and prenatal, postpartum, and infant/toddler home visiting [n = 228]). Treatments 1 and 3 were included originally to increase statistical power for testing pregnancy outcomes. For determining mortality, background information was available for all 1138 mothers assigned to all 4 treatments and all but 2 live-born children in treatments 2 and 4 (n = 704). Inclusion of children in treatments 1 and 3 was not possible because background information was missing on too many children.
INTERVENTIONS: Nurses sought to improve the outcomes of pregnancy, children`s health and development, and mothers` health and life-course with home visits beginning during pregnancy and continuing through child age 2 years. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: All-cause mortality in mothers and preventable-cause mortality in children (sudden infant death syndrome, unintentional injury, and homicide) derived from the National Death Index.
RESULTS: The mean (SE) 21-year maternal all-cause mortality rate was 3.7% (0.74%) in the combined control group (treatments 1 and 2), 0.4% (0.43%) in treatment 3, and 2.2% (0.97%) in treatment 4. The survival contrast of treatments 1 and 2 combined with treatment 3 was significant (P = .007); the contrast of treatments 1 and 2 combined with treatment 4 was not significant (P = .19), and the contrast of treatments 1 and 2 combined with treatments 3 and 4 combined was significant (post hoc P = .008). At child age 20 years, the preventable-cause child mortality rate was 1.6% (0.57%) in treatment 2 and 0.0% (SE not calculable) in treatment 4; the survival contrast was significant (P = .04). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Prenatal and infant/toddler home visitation by nurses is a promising means of reducing all-cause mortality among mothers and preventable-cause mortality in their first-born children living in highly disadvantaged settings.


Fluoride Use in Caries Prevention in the Primary Care Setting


Fluoride Use in Caries Prevention in the Primary Care Setting. Melinda B. Clark, Rebecca L. Slayton and SECTION ON ORAL HEALTH. Pediatrics; originally published online August 25, 2014; DOI: 10.1542/peds.2014-1699

[Comentario en una revista de noticias médicas online]
Pediatricians should prescribe fluoride as soon as their patients' teeth emerge, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) says in new guidelines.
Pediatricians should prescribe fluoride as soon as their patients' teeth emerge, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) says in new guidelines.
Published online August 25 in Pediatrics, the clinical report lays out specific recommendations for children at each stage of development.
Although the AAP endorsed the guidelines on fluoride use from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 2001, it is only now incorporating them into its own publications.
Fluoride has both risks and benefits for children, and pediatricians must be aware of these to promote their patients' oral health, write report authors Melinda B. Clark, MD, and Rebecca L. Slayton, DDS, PhD.
Although largely preventable, dental caries remains the most common chronic childhood disease in the United States. Research long ago established the effectiveness of fluoride in stopping the progression of the disease.
Fluoride use does carry some risks. The best established risks are fluorosis, subsurface hypomineralization, and porosity between developing enamel rods. Fluorosis has been increasing the last 2 decades, as sources of fluoride have become more prevalent, and it now affects about 41% of US adolescents, the authors report.
In mild cases, fluorosis takes the form of clinically insignificant striations and opaque areas. Moderate to severe cases, which are rare in the United States, can cause pitting, brittle incisor edges, and weakened grove anatomy in permanent 6-year molars. However, the risk for fluorosis development largely passes by age 8 years.
Fluoride also can also be toxic when consumed in very large quantities. The authors estimate the toxic dose of elemental fluoride at 5 to 10 mg/kg body weight. For this reason, they recommend limiting the quantity prescribed at 1 time to no more than a 4-month supply and providing supervision for fluoride use by small children.


Dental interventions to prevent caries in children. A national clinical guideline


Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN). Dental interventions to prevent caries in children. A national clinical guideline. Edinburgh (Scotland): Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN); 2014 Mar. 45 p.

Acceso a texto completo

Major Recommendations
Note from the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) and National Guideline Clearinghouse (NGC): In addition to these evidence-based recommendations, the guideline development group also identifies points of best clinical practice in the full-text guideline document.
The grades of recommendations (A-D) and levels of evidence (1++, 1+, 1-, 2++, 2+, 2-, 3, 4) are defined at the end of the "Major Recommendations" field.
Predicting Caries Risk
Carries Risk Assessment
C - The following factors should be considered when assessing caries risk:
  • Clinical evidence of previous disease
  • Dietary habits, especially frequency of sugary food and drink consumption
  • Social history, especially socioeconomic status
  • Use of fluoride
  • Plaque control
  • Saliva
  • Medical history
D - Specialist child healthcare professionals should consider carrying out a caries risk assessment of children in their first year as part of the child's overall health assessment.
D - Children whose families live in a deprived area should be considered as at increased risk of early childhood caries when developing preventive programmes.
Delivery of Dental Brief Interventions in the Practice Setting
Effectiveness of Dental Brief Interventions
B - Oral health promotion interventions should facilitate daily toothbrushing with fluoride toothpaste.
Format of Dental Brief Interventions
B - Oral health promotion interventions should be based on recognised health behaviour theory and models such as motivational interviewing.
Social Determinants of Oral Health
C - As part of the patient assessment, a social history should be taken which will contribute to dental brief interventions being specific to individuals and tailored to their particular needs and circumstances.
Toothbrushing with Fluoride Toothpaste
Concentration of Fluoride Toothpaste
A - Following risk assessment, children and young people up to the age of 18 years who are at standard risk of developing dental caries should be advised to use toothpastes in the range 1,000 to 1,500 parts per million fluoride (ppmF).
- Following risk assessment, children aged from 10 to 16 years who are at increased risk of developing dental caries should be advised to use toothpastes at a concentration of 2,800 ppmF.
Frequency and Duration of Brushing
Frequency of Toothbrushing
A - Toothbrushing with fluoride toothpaste should take place at least twice daily.
Supervised Toothbrushing
A - Supervision of toothbrushing with fluoride toothpaste is recommended as an effective caries prevention measure.
Toothbrushing Practice
A - Children should be encouraged to spit out excess toothpaste and not rinse with water after brushing.
Topical Anticaries Interventions
Topical Fluoride Varnish
A - Fluoride varnish should be applied at least twice yearly in all children.
Use of Sealants
A - Resin-based fissure sealants should be applied to the permanent molars of all children as early after eruption as possible.


Professional breastfeeding support for first-time mothers: a multicentre cluster randomised controlled trial


Fu I1, Fong DHeys MLee ISham ATarrant M.

 2014 May 26. doi: 10.1111/1471-0528.12884



To evaluate the effect of two postnatal professional support interventions on the duration of any and exclusive breastfeeding.


Multicentre, three-arm, cluster randomised controlled trial.


A cohort of 722 primiparous breastfeeding mothers with uncomplicated, full-term pregnancies.


The three study interventions were: (1) standard postnatal maternity care; (2) standard care plus three in-hospital professional breastfeeding support sessions, of 30-45 minutes in duration; or (2) standard care plus weekly post-discharge breastfeeding telephone support, of 20-30 minutes in duration, for 4 weeks. The interventions were delivered by four trained research nurses, who were either highly experienced registered midwives or certified lactation consultants.


Prevalence of any and exclusive breastfeeding at 1, 2, and 3 months postpartum.


Rates of any and exclusive breastfeeding were higher among participants in the two intervention groups at all follow-up points, when compared with those who received standard care. Participants receiving telephone support were significantly more likely to continue any breastfeeding at 1 month (76.2 versus 67.3%; odds ratio, OR 1.63, 95% confidence interval, 95% CI 1.10-2.41) and at 2 months (58.6 versus 48.9%; OR 1.48, 95% CI 1.04-2.10), and to be exclusively breastfeeding at 1 month (28.4 versus 16.9%; OR 1.89, 95% CI 1.24-2.90). Participants in the in-hospital support group were also more likely to be breastfeeding at all time points, but the effect was not statistically significant.


Professional breastfeeding telephone support provided early in the postnatal period, and continued for the first month postpartum, improves breastfeeding duration among first-time mothers. It is also possible that it was the continuing nature of the support that increased the effectiveness of the intervention, rather than the delivery of the support by telephone specifically.

Primary Care Behavioral Interventions to Reduce Illicit Drug and Nonmedical Pharmaceutical Use in Children and Adolescents: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement

Acceso a texto completo

Virginia A. Moyer, MD, MPH, on behalf of the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force*
 2014 May 6;160(9):634-9. doi: 10.7326/M14-0334
Description: Update of the 2008 U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation on screening for illicit drug use.

Methods: The USPSTF reviewed the evidence on interventions to help adolescents who have never used drugs to remain abstinent and interventions to help adolescents who are using drugs but do not meet criteria for a substance use disorder to reduce or stop their use.

Population: This recommendation applies to children and adolescents younger than age 18 years who have not been diagnosed with a substance use disorder.

Recommendation: The USPSTF concludes that the current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of primary care–based behavioral interventions to prevent or reduce illicit drug or nonmedical pharmaceutical use in children and adolescents. (I statement)

The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) makes recommendations about the effectiveness of specific preventive care services for patients without related signs or symptoms.

It bases its recommendations on the evidence of both the benefits and harms of the service and an assessment of the balance. The USPSTF does not consider the costs of providing a service in this assessment.

The USPSTF recognizes that clinical decisions involve more considerations than evidence alone. Clinicians should understand the evidence but individualize decision making to the specific patient or situation. Similarly, the USPSTF notes that policy and coverage decisions involve considerations in addition to the evidence of clinical benefits and harms.


Well-Child Care Clinical Practice Redesign for Serving Low-Income Children

Coker TR(1), Moreno C(2), Shekelle PG(3), Schuster MA(4), Chung PJ(5).

Our objective was to conduct a rigorous, structured process to create a new model of well-child care (WCC) in collaboration with a multisite community health center and 2 small, independent practices serving predominantly Medicaid-insured children. Working groups of clinicians, staff, and parents (called “Community Advisory Boards” [CABs]) used (1) perspectives of WCC stakeholders and (2) a literature review of WCC practice redesign to create 4 comprehensive WCC models for children ages 0 to 3 years. An expert panel, following a modified version of the Rand/UCLA Appropriateness Method, rated each model for potential effectiveness on 4 domains: (1) receipt of recommended services, (2) family-centeredness, (3) timely and appropriate follow-up, and (4) feasibility and efficiency. Results were provided to the CABs for selection of a final model to implement. The newly developed models rely heavily on a health educator for anticipatory guidance and developmental, behavioral, and psychosocial surveillance and screening. Each model allots a small amount of time with the pediatrician to perform a brief physical examination and to address parents' physical health concerns. A secure Web-based tool customizes the visit to parents' needs and facilitates previsit screening. Scheduled, non–face-to-face methods (text, phone) for parent communication with the health care team are also critical to these new models of care. A structured process that engages small community practices and community health centers in clinical practice redesign can produce comprehensive, site-specific, and innovative models for delivery of WCC. This process, as well as the models developed, may be applicable to other small practices and clinics interested in practice redesign.


Effect of intervention aimed at increasing physical activity, reducing sedentary behaviour, and increasing fruit and vegetable consumption in children: Active for Life Year 5 (AFLY5) school based cluster randomised controlled trial.

Kipping RR, Howe LD, Jago R, et al.  BMJ. 2014 May 27;348:g3256. doi: 10.1136/bmj.g3256. (Original) PMID: 24865166

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effectiveness of a school based intervention to increase physical activity, reduce sedentary behaviour, and increase fruit and vegetable consumption in children.

DESIGN: Cluster randomised controlled trial.
SETTING: 60 primary schools in the south west of England.
PARTICIPANTS: Primary school children who were in school year 4 (age 8-9 years) at recruitment and baseline assessment, in year 5 during the intervention, and at the end of year 5 (age 9-10) at follow-up assessment.
INTERVENTIONS: The Active for Life Year 5 (AFLY5) intervention consisted of teacher training, provision of lesson and child-parent interactive homework plans, all materials required for lessons and homework, and written materials for school newsletters and parents. The intervention was delivered when children were in school year 5 (age 9-10 years). Schools allocated to control received standard teaching.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The pre-specified primary outcomes were accelerometer assessed minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity per day, accelerometer assessed minutes of sedentary behaviour per day, and reported daily consumption of servings of fruit and vegetables.
RESULTS: 60 schools with more than 2221 children were recruited; valid data were available for fruit and vegetable consumption for 2121 children, for accelerometer assessed physical activity and sedentary behaviour for 1252 children, and for secondary outcomes for between 1825 and 2212 children for the main analyses. None of the three primary outcomes differed between children in schools allocated to the AFLY5 intervention and those allocated to the control group. The difference in means comparing the intervention group with the control group was -1.35 (95% confidence interval -5.29 to 2.59) minutes per day for moderate to vigorous physical activity, -0.11 (-9.71 to 9.49) minutes per day for sedentary behaviour, and 0.08 (-0.12 to 0.28) servings per day for fruit and vegetable consumption. The intervention was effective for three out of nine of the secondary outcomes after multiple testing was taken into account: self reported time spent in screen viewing at the weekend (-21 (-37 to -4) minutes per day), self reported servings of snacks per day (-0.22 (-0.38 to -0.05)), and servings of high energy drinks per day (-0.26 (-0.43 to -0.10)) were all reduced. Results from a series of sensitivity analyses testing different assumptions about missing data and from per protocol analyses produced similar results.
CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that the AFLY5 school based intervention is not effective at increasing levels of physical activity, decreasing sedentary behaviour, and increasing fruit and vegetable consumption in primary school children. Change in these activities may require more intensive behavioural interventions with children or upstream interventions at the family and societal level, as well as at the school environment level. These findings have relevance for researchers, policy makers, public health practitioners, and doctors who are involved in health promotion, policy making, and commissioning services.Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN50133740.