American Academy of Ophthalmology Pediatric Ophthalmology/Strabismus Panel. Amblyopia. San Francisco (CA): American Academy of Ophthalmology; 2007. 28 p

Documento editado por la Academia Americana de Oftalmologia, accesible a texto completo, donde explica los criterios diagnósticos mediante anamnesis y examen clinico para el diagnóstico temprano de ambliopia en atención primaria describiendo el modo de realización de cada una de las pruebas . Igualmente describe los métodos de tratamiento propuestos por oftalmología:

The initial amblyopia evaluation (history and physical examination) includes all components of the comprehensive pediatric ophthalmic evaluation,1 with special attention to the potential risk factors for amblyopia, such as a positive family history for strabismus, amblyopia, or media opacity.
Although a thorough history generally includes the following items, the exact composition varies with the patient's particular problems and needs:
  • Demographic data, including identification of parent/caregiver, and patient's gender and date of birth[A:III]
  • Documentation of identity and relationship of historian[B:III]
  • The identity of other pertinent health care providers[A:III]
  • The chief complaint and reason for the eye evaluation[A:III]
  • Current eye problems[A:III]
  • Ocular history, including prior eye problems, diseases, diagnoses, and treatments[A:III]
  • Systemic history; birth weight; prenatal and perinatal history that may be pertinent (e.g., alcohol, tobacco, and drug use during pregnancy); past hospitalizations and operations; general health and development[A:III]
  • Current medications and allergies[A:III]
  • Review of systems[B:III]
The eye examination consists of an assessment of the physiological function and the anatomic status of the eye and visual system. Documentation of the child’s level of cooperation with the
examination can be useful in interpreting the results and in making comparisons among the examinations over time. In general, the examination may include the following elements:
  • Assessment of visual acuity and fixation pattern[A:III]
  • Ocular alignment and motility[A:III]
  • Red reflex or binocular red reflex (Brückner) test[A:III]
  • Pupil examination[A:III]
  • External examination[A:III]
  • Anterior segment examination[A:III]
  • Cycloplegic retinoscopy/refraction[A:III]
  • Funduscopic examination[A:III]
  • Binocularity/stereoacuity testing[A:III]